03 November 2005

Issue Intro: Building Community in the 21st Century

Welcome to the second edition of BiblioTech for Fall 2005. It has been an exciting semester here at SIRLS, with the first Graduate Library Student Symposium as well as numerous brown-bag lunch lectures and social events. These events and others like them help to cultivate a sense of community at our school, something which will prove invaluable once current students head out into the wider world of LibraryLand. Remember to make these connections with your peers and faculty while you're here; libraries are about nothing if not community (and the networking perks will come in handy when looking for a job).

This issue truly represents diverse interests of the SIRLS community. Dorothy Hemmo addresses issues related to RFID technology in libraries. We have the latest installment of School Tools from Bruce Fulton, where you can learn about RefWorks, a program many graduate students will find indispensable. Diana J. Daleo gives us an overview of access to government documents at the University of Arizona. Michelle Ganz takes a look at the politics of literacy and its implications for marginalized populations. And finally, Nancy Bronte-Matheny shares with us the new age of librarianship in the Sultanate of Oman.

With such an interesting issue of BiblioTech coming out at the same time as LSO elections are about to happen, I want to make a personal plea to you all to continue getting involved. My semester as social coordinator has been fun and fulfilling, and helping Nancy with BiblioTech has been a blast. I now know someone who lives in Oman! That never could have happened without SIRLS and this publication. (Just one more example of the unique aspects of our school, our virtual education opportunities, and building connections?)

This semester we have built up momentum at SIRLS, working toward holding more professional development and networking events, and succeeding in fostering a great feeling of connected community. The topics in this BiblioTech may be quite different from each other, but they have one thing in common: all were written by your peers at SIRLS. That single aspect of our lives draws us all together, and it is my hope that we can continue weaving the web of connections that will help us get the most out of SIRLS, during our education and beyond.

Monica Bafetti

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Library RFID and Patron Privacy

by Dorothy Hemmo

RFID, or Radio Frequency Identification has been implemented, or is being considered for implementation in libraries across the United States. This technology has come under fire from privacy advocates due to a perceived potential for abuse. This paper looks at RFID technology and its impact on patron privacy.

A Radio Frequency Identification system uses radio waves to identify individual items. Each item is affixed with an RFID Tag, a paper-thin microchip that has an antenna attached to it (Lichtenberg, 2003). The tag stores data, which can be read when the tag comes within range of a “reader”. The reader emits radio waves which activates the tag and sends information to or receives information from a computer. The RFID software interfaces with the library automation system. In a library setting, the tag would store information such as an identification number (similar to a barcode), a security bit (similar to magnetic security strips), and maybe shelf location information. The read range on a tag is very small, a maximum of 18 inches.(Chachra, 2003).

Libraries use RFID systems for quicker, easier checkout and return of materials, quicker inventory procedures, and to stop theft. ( Oder, 2003). Privacy advocates have concerns about some aspects of RFID. Because the tags are read via radio waves, could the tags be read by an unauthorized third party? Also, what data are stored on the tags? The library community has always had a commitment to patron privacy and confidentiality; and it is important for us to seriously consider the impact of new technology on these areas before the technology is implemented.

The primary controversy has been whether or not these privacy concerns are valid. Dorman (2003) points out that most tags contain innocuous data: the equivalent of a barcode, and an indication of checkout status. Also, an RF reader would need to be very close to the item to read the tag. But Molnar and Wagner (2004) explain that tracking a book (and the person carrying it) is within the realm of possibility, as is “hotlisting”, or keeping tabs on who is checking out particular titles by tracking ID numbers associated with those titles. Each tag has a collision-avoidance protocol to ensure multiple tags do not confuse the RF reader; this protocol could allow tags to be individually identified. Clearly, it is possible to breach the security of today’s RFID tags. New standards are being adopted by manufacturers, although the new products are not yet available (Ayre, 2004).

Is it ethical for libraries to adopt this new technology? Does the need for patron privacy and confidentiality override a library’s need for efficiency, cost-savings and loss prevention?

The right to privacy is a fundamental human right in that it is necessary to the exercise of other individual rights. Freedom of speech and thought require privacy. If a person is being watched, either by other individuals or by authorities, that person may not truly feel free to make his own decisions or to speak his mind (or to access desired information). This freedom from surveillance, this right to be left alone, does have limits, however. If a person infringes on the rights of others, he may in turn lose some of his rights. For example, if a person is planning to commit a crime, his right to privacy may be infringed upon in an effort to stop the crime, assuming probable cause has been established. The bar should be set fairly high in determining probable cause; a person’s right to privacy should not be violated casually.

In the United States, people have a legal right to privacy, through Constitutional amendments, Supreme Court decisions and Federal laws. The Fourth Amendment protects people against “unreasonable searches and seizures,” the Fourteenth Amendment states that a person cannot be deprived “of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.…” The Ninth Amendment says that people have additional rights not specified in the Constitution. The Fourteenth and Ninth Amendments are often sited as important points in court decisions on privacy. Words such as “unreasonable” and “due process” underscore the conditional nature of the right to privacy: this right can be violated for compelling reasons, such as preventing harm.

Patron confidentiality is an aspect of the right to privacy. As such, patron confidentiality should be kept in nearly all circumstances. In exceptional cases, for instance when a subpoena is issued by the courts after probable cause has been determined, infringing on patron confidentiality may be acceptable; the rights of society can override individual rights in some cases.

Now that we have defined the normal course of action (respecting patron confidentiality), and exceptions (intervention by the court is one example), what about RFID? It seems that this technology, as it stands today, has a terrific potential to nullify patron confidentiality, and should not be implemented in public libraries. In their paper Privacy and Security in Library RFID (2004), Molnar and Wagner point out a myriad of ways that tags can be detected and read, and library items tracked. This provides opportunities for authorities and just about anybody else with the technical know-how to casually abuse this fundamental right to privacy. It seems strange to me that the library community would embrace a technology without fully investigating it and thinking it through. The fact that an institution generally well-thought of has embraced this technology may give RFID automatic legitimacy in the mind of the public. RFID technology has other applications and uses, and it needs to be questioned thoroughly, not given a free pass into everyday life. The library community needs to recognize the potential for abuse in RFID, and not put its desire for “faster and cheaper” ahead of its patrons’ right to privacy.

RFID is bound to become more common in everyday life, and libraries will continue to implement it. The good news is that the technology continues to improve and the library community is beginning to get involved in its development. Lori Ayre (2004) suggests “best practices guidelines” for library RFID use. These guidelines include: notify the public of RFID use; use updated, more secure systems; do not store personal information on tags; all information transmitted between tag and reader should be encrypted. She also suggests that the library community get involved in developing standards and public policy regarding RFID. This is surely good advice. Libraries should avoid this technology until safeguards are in place to protect the patron’s right of privacy.


  • Ayre, L. B. (2004) RFID and Libraries. Draft chapter for Wireless Privacy; RFID, Bluetooth and 802.11. Retrieved July 21, 2005.
  • Chachra, V. & McPherson, D. (2003, October 31). Personal privacy and use of RFID technology in libraries. Retrieved from http://www.vtls.com/documents/privacy.pdf
  • Dorman, D. (2003). RFID Poses No Problem for Patron Privacy. American Libraries, 34,(11), 86.
  • Lichtenberg, J. (2003). Industry Exploring Viability of RFID. Publishers Weekly250 (46), 14-17.
  • Molnar, D. & Wagner, D. A. (2004, June 8). Privacy and security in library RFID: Issues, practices architectures. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from http://www.eff.org/Privacy/Surveillance/RFID/molnar_paper.pdf
  • Oder, N. (2003). RFID Use Raises Privacy Concerns. Library Journal128 (19), 19-20.

(photo: Den Norske Dataforening [The Norwegian Data Organization], Oslo, Norway. http://dataforeningen.no/)

How to cite this document:
Hemmo, D. (2005). Library RFID and personal privacy.. BiblioTech, 3(2). Retrieved [insert date here], from: http://www.sir.arizona.edu/lso/bibliotech/2005nov_vol3_no2

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SchoolTools II: RefWorks

by Bruce Fulton

In the last installment, we went over the Virtual Private Network (VPN) client. If you connect from home, I hope you all have had a chance to try it out. I’ve found it especially useful over the past month doing some literature searches using Google Scholar. With the VPN client installed, Google recognizes the UA affiliation and connects you directly to the resource without having to go through one of the SABIO database searches to find the reference. Whew, what a timesaver!

This time, we’re moving on to RefWorks, a great free tool that will make much of your bibliographic citation work a breeze. But be sure to rev up your VPN client, or you’ll be typing in your CAT card number all night long.

This won’t be a tutorial. There are several RefWorks guides online. My goal here is to introduce you to the slick features. I’m sure you’ll decide it’s worth a bit of effort to learn how it works after we’re done.

Never heard of it? RefWorks links used to be displayed more prominently on the library home page. Although free for UA students, faculty and staff, the links are more or less buried now with the redesign of the library web site. You can easily find the links and guides with a site search if you know about it (and now you do!), or you might run across it in the help section on citations. In the meantime, though, surf on over to the RefWorks login page. You need to set up an account which is a very simple process. After that, use the link above if you’re not using the VPN client, or this one if you are.

You’ll want to start RefWorks before starting your literature searches and you’ll see why in a minute. For now, log in and you’ll see something like the following:

Of course, if you don’t have any references collected yet, you won’t see much. But looking at this example you’ll see a few intriguing possibilities. First, there are folders you can create and configure. These can be project based, or class based or subject based. It’s your call, and you can mix and match. I’ve used RefWorks folders for all of the above.

But how did all those citations get there? In many cases, automatically. Let’s take a trip through WorldCat. If you haven’t used it already, you will before you get out of here. WorldCat is available through the List of Databases on SABIO. Navigate through W and you’ll find it. For purposes of illustration, search on a keyword or two. I’ll use “Musical Instruments.” You’ll get a result that looks like this:

Check a couple that you like, and pay attention to the Export button. Have you ever wondered what that was for? Click and see!

OK, so you’ve got your VPN client running (not necessary if you’re connecting from a UA-based workstation). Pick Marked Records and RefWorks as shown, and then click Export. Surprise! (But note that it will only be a good surprise if RefWorks is already loaded). If it works as planned, you'll see something like the following in a new window:

Clicking on View Last Imported Folder should be pretty tempting by now:

You can look at the tutorials and learn how to copy your imported references to folders that you create for classes or projects. For now, let’s take a look at the Bibliography tab.

You can see you have quite a few choices. First, you can select which of dozens of citation formats you can use – APA, MLA, or create your own custom format. Then, you can select the format for your bibliography output and the list you want to create. If you have lots of folders, you can create a custom list with just the references you need. Depending on your options, “Create Bibliography” will generate something like the following:

I assume you can cut and paste! Happy citationing!

Of course, not every reference will be exportable through a database search , although you’ll find a surprising number are, with more on the way. But if not, Refworks will help you fill out a citation record if there is no direct export function:

Fill in whatever fields you can identify and specify whichever folder you need. You certainly don’t have to fill out every field available, just the ones you need to make a good citation. Would it be easier just to type that into your footnotes? Not necessarily. First of all, the RefWorks software stores your data as individual fields and keeps track of it for you. You therefore have a permanent record of the sources you’ve used, and you can create from them a bibliography in any format required on demand. As you go through school and into your professional career, you’ll want to be able to find the references you’ve worked hard to find and go back to them as necessary. You probably have some interests that you’ll keep coming back to as you go through your classes. Over the course of your degree, this will save you having to look up references you know you identified the year before in some other class.


RefWorks is server-based which means that you can always retrieve your citations from any computer without having to download a client. There is, however, another piece you can install on your individual computer that integrates the online database of citations with Microsoft Word so that you can automatically insert references in term papers. It’s called Write-N-Cite and it’s a RefWorks add-in to the Microsoft Word family of word processing software. Download the client piece and it will install a button on your Word toolbar:

Click it and it will load a copy of your references into a new window. Need to cite one of them in your article? Switch to Write-N-Cite and find the reference:

You can filter by folder or other view, of course. To cite a reference in your article , click “Cite.” The software will insert a bookmark into your document. It will look kind of strange, but all will be well. When you’re done citing, click Bibliography. The software will process your document and create and save a new version with a bibliography matching your bookmarked citations.

So, here’s the upside. This saves a lot of time. With search tools like WorldCat, you can generate a complete list of citations in very short time. You can even use the search engines to produce citations for works you’ve found through other sources. The database is stored on RefWorks server, so you can get at your collection at any time from any computer. And, it’s free.

The downside? I’ve found that the bibliography occasionally needs some friendly massaging. You might have to go into the automatically created record and fix a thing or two that the export function doesn’t handle as smoothly as you might like. Even so, the net result will almost certainly save you time and energy.

One last piece of advice. There is a bit of a learning curve. Don't expect to master this from scratch the week before your term project is due, and don't try Write-N-Cite untested on your paper until you're satisfied you understand it on a scratch copy of something and know which is really the final version! The best time to start with this is at the beginning of the semester when the crush isn't on, or perhaps between semesters as you plan for what's coming up.

There are some high-end product that may serve you better if you have the bucks to spend and that may be friendlier when you're writing formal articles for publication. ProCite and EndNote are commercial products that might be worth investigating, especially after you leave the University and don’t have free access to RefWorks, or you can purchase a subscription to RefWorks after you matriculate. In either case, it’s easy to export your database and take it with you when you leave.

Start to explore RefWorks at http://www.library.arizona.edu/help/tutorials/refworks/.

Next Time:

RefWorks is great for traditional references, but what about all those web pages you keep needing to cite? Next time, we’ll look at a couple of very interesting – and free – tools that will automatically keep track of your web cites much the way RefWorks keeps track of traditional books and journals. Yes, they produce automatic bibliographies, and can even make resource sharing and technologies like RSS easy and automatic. Stay Tuned!

Briefly Noted:

If you're a Windows user, take a gander at www.primopdf.com for a free tool that installs as a print driver and lets you take anything you could print and produces a PDF file for upload to your web pages. PDF formatted files are universally readable on a wide variety of platforms and preferable to publishing a native Word, PowerPoint or other proprietary document. MAC users have had the capability of outputting to PDF directly for a while, but the Windows world still needs a third party program. Rumors are that the next version of Office will include this capability, but in the mean time, PrimoPDF is nifty and free. It doesn’t have all the bells and whistles of the full Adobe Acrobat product, but then it doesn’t cost $300 either.

How to cite this document:
Fulton, B. (2005). School tools part II: Refworks. BiblioTech, 3(2). Retrieved [insert date here], from: http://www.sir.arizona.edu/lso/bibliotech/2005nov_vol3_no2

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A Student's Evaluation of Government Information at the University of Arizona Library

by Diana Daleo

Government information is plentiful. You can find a lot of it on your own just by using Google if you know what you’re looking for. When you don’t is when there’s a problem. So a government document seeker needs to be able to locate government information when a reference librarian is not around.

The University of Arizona Library’s revised interface allows for easy access to a multitude of resources, both online and within the library, supplies user guides, tutorials, research aids and tools assisting the user in researching independently and more efficiently and provides a portal to information not contained within the library, as often as it leads to a resource within the library’s physical walls.

The first thing I notice in attempting to locate government information available on the University of Arizona library website is that there are a couple of different ways to access the main “government information” webpage. The first way to access is by clicking on “Libraries and Collections” and within the Main Library heading is “Government Documents.” The second way to access is by subject. Click on “Reference Resources,” then “Subject Guide” and go to “G.” By offering different entry ways into a given area such as “Government Documents,” the user can easily and quickly arrive at a subject of interest.

Second, I notice the wealth of information designed to help users understand government documents and find what is needed. From the “Government Documents” homepage, there is a link to “Tutorials/Guides.” Here one can understand how a bill becomes a law, see the structure of the U.S. government , compare GPOAccess with the CIS Congressional Universe and find a “help page” for what to find where (see http://dizzy.library.arizona.edu/library/teams/sst/pol/guide/tips-elec.html). There are also links to other universities’ government information web pages which offers different slants to similar subjects or additional tutorials and guides.

The library catalog frequently has links to full text or outside sources. The links to outside sources are especially prevalent within the government information section. The federal, state & local and international governing bodies post significant amounts of their materials on their own websites. It is natural that a library should be the place to provide effective access to these and all materials from within their catalogs. How lucky we are to have immediate access to so many materials that the governments supply right at our fingertips! With anything on the web, there are links that no longer work, however, even the dead links provide clues as to what site might have the information one needs – eg. http://www.lib.umich.edu/libhome/Documents.center/amfact/slide1.htm.

The amount of information available on the web is frequently overwhelming. When looking for government documents, having as many tutorials, guides, links to live information or links to full text points the researcher in the right direction and gives the researcher more ability to locate the information sought independently. Luckily, there are still subject specialists at the University of Arizona to aid researchers in need of additional assistance or clarification.

How to cite this document:
Daleo, D. (2005). A student's evaluation of government information at the University of Arizona Library . BiblioTech, 3(2). Retrieved [insert date here], from: http://www.sir.arizona.edu/lso/bibliotech/2005nov_vol3_no2

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Who Gets To Be Literate?

by Michelle Ganz

Literacy’s definition has many variations. Carmen Simich-Dudgeon gives some of the many definitions in her essay “English Literacy Development”. They include the individuals’ ability to perform certain tasks, apply reading to real-world tasks and grade-level performance. It is also defined as the ability to function in the real world and the ability to apply deeper meaning to language. She also gives an “operational definition” of literacy as the “range of uses to which skills of literacy are put”. Languages that do not have a typical writing system such as Native American Languages and American Sign Language, which has no writing system, are starting to be considered in the definitions of literacy. There is still discussion as to whether students based in these languages, especially ASL, can be fully literate by current education standards. New definitions of literacy should be created to account for these alternative language systems. Regardless of the definition there are students who are left out or left behind. The goal of both educators and librarians is to create an expanded definition of literacy that includes those traditionally marginalized.

As literacy is now defined non-traditional students who are quite literate are considered illiterate because of their inability to perform on the standardized tests and/or in traditional classroom settings. Educators have two options to teach literacy skills: phonics or whole language. These techniques are not designed for the disabled students. Those with physical or learning disabilities are assumed to be less literate because they do not perform in a standard fashion. With more and more emphasis being placed on performance on standardized tests teachers have less time to develop alternative teaching methods that will allow them to reach and properly evaluate all students. Consequently those that are outside the norm are pushed aside or labeled incorrectly.

Children with learning disabilities are often assumed to be students unable to learn. These children can be just as literate as any other children; they just need to be taught using different techniques. Many students do not realize that their literacy problems are related to how they learn until far into the school system. These children are told they are not trying hard enough, not smart enough or are ‘trouble kids’. These kinds of labels cause children to write off literacy as something ‘not for them‘. It gives them a dislike for reading and reading comprehension. The more they fail by standard definitions the less they are willing to try. This creates students who do not have the desire to learn. These students need to be identified early in their school careers and taught by methods that coincide with their personal learning techniques and abilities. All children learn in the way that is best for them. It is an innate ability that children develop early in life and continue to use throughout life. Teachers have to tap into this individual method to be able to fully reach their students. These groups of students are getting some of the help they need by working with LD specialists within school systems. Unfortunately, budget cuts and time restraints mean these specialists are not as effective as they could be.

The physically disabled child often learns as other children do. Those whose disability is related to physical mobility usually have no problems with the teaching methods now in use. When the disability is a major one such as blindness or deafness special schools have been designed to deal with their special needs. Those children whose disability is only partial, such as those who are hard-of-hearing or slightly blind are often unidentified within the system. For these students the standard education system will fail them. For example the hard-of-hearing student is be able to read and comprehend at a high level but may not be able to read out-loud. They are unable to perform certain classroom tasks and are punished for this. They are labeled as illiterate by the definitions noted above. Even when the child’s disability is acknowledged there is little the already overwhelmed educator can do to help the student. Rarely is a school or teacher willing to create new standards that can accurately measure these students’ literacy. Likewise the partially blind student needs special environments in order for them to succeed. Large print books, extra lighting or raised letter books are usually not available. These students, like the hard-of-hearing students, may not be able to read aloud, or perform in other activities such as kinesthetic elemental projects but are still able to perform alternative tasks and comprehend literature.

Literacy is an important facet of education, but when it excludes students it is detrimental to their education. Educators need to be aware of the special needs of some of their students and work to include them in classroom activity, even if it is a diminished capacity. Alternate activities such as writing discussion questions and leading group discussions can be substituted for reading aloud. It is important to not single out an individual student for their disability; but to work to make these students feel like part of the classroom community. Inclusion will assure educators that a child who is ‘different’ will not feel that they are sub-standard compared to other students. By instilling confidence these students will exceed expectations and learn to embrace literacy as an important part of their lives.

How to cite this document:
Ganz, M. (2005). Who gets to be literate? BiblioTech, 3(2). Retrieved [insert date here], from: http://www.sir.arizona.edu/lso/bibliotech/2005nov_vol3_no2

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Librarianship in the Sultanate

by Nancy Bronte-Matheny

The scientific study of library and information science (LIS) became a formal source of academic inquiry only as recently as 1990 in the Sultanate of Oman, an Islamic nation located on the tip of the Arabian Peninsula, the size of Kansas, with a population of 1.7 million nationals (Selected Data..., 2003). Librarianship was not considered a profession in most Arab countries prior to 1990. Librarians were seen as clerks, and the majority in Oman only possessed the most basic education (Gardner, 1989).

Much of that has changed since the reigning monarch, His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Said, recognized his country's need for qualified specialists in the field, as part of a greater modernization effort for the nation, now in the 35th year of his reign. Oman has made tremendous strides in the study of library and information science, as well with the technology required to keep pace with the digital world.

In this article, the reader will learn how the nation's largest academic university is leading change in information education, transforming the nation away from an oil sector-dependent economy into an information society of the future.
University Library System

Founded in 1986 and located on the outskirts of Muscat, Oman, Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) [Qaboos pronounced like train 'caboose'] is the leading national university in the sultanate, serving a population of approximately 8,000 students. The institution offers a Bachelor's degree in Library and Information Science, and two years ago added a Master's degree in Library and Information Science.

The Sultan Qaboos University library system collection consists of approximately 240,000 items spread among four campus university libraries: the Main Library, the medical library, the Commerce Information Center, and the mosque library.

The Main Library is centrally located at the university facing Mecca, in a 3-story building with separate entrances for male and female patrons, on the first and second floors, respectively. Study areas are also segregated by gender, although not strictly enforced. Archived periodicals and library administrative offices reside on the first floor. The reference, circulation, interlibrary loan, and reserves departments are situated on the second floor. Special collections, the general stacks, newspapers and periodicals, and microforms reside on the third floor.

The Sultan Qaboos University library system depends on Amicus, a product of LibriCore, Leuven, Belgium, for its primary on-site cataloging and library management software system. The university was the first library to use the Arabic version of Amicus, in the year 2000 (Omani University to..., 2000). Both English- and Arabic-language versions are available to patrons. The collection utilizes the Library of Congress classification system and the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules. Arabic and non-Arabic titles are integrated and shelved according to subject.

Students also have access to 33 major online databases, including LISA (Library & Information Science Abstracts) in both English and Arabic, from computer terminals located within the Main Library, or by remote access from home or office.

Primary issues associated with the SQU Main Library with implications for collection development are: language barriers (Arabic vs. English), government censorship, staff recruitment across ethnic, religious, and gender lines, and an information technology deficit shortened in recent years but still with room for improvement.

An additional collection new to the university is the Digital Library of the College of Arts and Social Sciences http://www.squ.edu.om/art/dig_lib/index.htm. That library is considered the first digital library of the university, which publishes research, papers and reports conducted by college faculty, in both Arabic and English languages.

The Center for Education Technology (CET)(http://www.squ.edu.om/cet/index.html), is not unlike the Learning Technologies Center (LTC) of the University of Arizona (http://www.ltc.arizona.edu/). Distance courses are facilitated through the expertise of the CET staff. The platform WebCT is used to deliver content, one with which most Arizona student's should be familiar. Moodle software is also used as a vehicle to construct online learning communities (http://moodle.org/).

The Center for Information Systems (CIS)(http://www.squ.edu.om/cis/index.html) is similar to the Center for Computing and Information Technology (CCIT) at the University of Arizona (http://computing.arizona.edu/), in its mission to support all computer-based information system requirements for the university. At the CIS, the center provides valuable training in information system topics, as well as its full support of all computing hardware systems at the university.

Professional membership may be established with the Special Libraries Association (SLA) - Arabian Gulf Chapter. It is understood, at this writing, that a student chapter does not yet exist, but that LIS students may matriculate conferences or workshops side-by-side with professionals in the field. The 12th Annual Conference of the SLA-Arabian Gulf Chapter will be held April 11 - 13, 2006, in Muscat, Oman (http://www.sla.org/chapter/cag/), further evidence of the countries progress and commitment toward information education.

In the near future, the archives of the Oman Room (Special Collections - Main Library), the leading Omani studies research resource in the world, will relocate to its new home on campus at the Oman Study Center. Furthermore, the Center will soon develop a digital library of its extensive holdings in monographs written about Oman or written by Omani nationals.

The Sultan Qaboos University libraries, Center for Education Technology, and Center for Information Systems combine to form a rich environment in which library and information students may come to a greater understanding of the possibilities of the emerging information society that is Oman.


  • Gardner, S. (1989). Censorship and librarianship in Oman. Library Journal, 114 (19), 54-56.
  • Omani university to use AMICUS system. (2000). Information Today,17(9), 59.
  • Selected data and indicators from the results of general populations, housing units, and establishments census (1993-2003) [Electronic Version]. (2003). Sultanate of Oman: Ministry of National Economy. Retrieved April 18, 2005, from: http://www.omancensus.net/fer/Figurs-indicators/Sultanate%20of%20Oman.pdf
How to cite this document:
Bronte-Matheny, N. (2005). Librarianship in the Sultanate. BiblioTech, 3(2). Retrieved [insert date here], from: http://www.sir.arizona.edu/lso/bibliotech/2005nov_vol3_no2

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